Manual on Corporate Governance
Corporate Governance Principles
Rights of Stakeholders Equitable TreatmentPolicies
of Shareholders The Company's Roles
to Stakeholders Disclosure of Information
and Transparency Responsibilities of the Board
of Directors Enforcement DisciplineTrading Restrictions Policy Business Conduct Policy Whistleblowing Policy Conflict of Interest Policy Dividend Policy Related Party Transactions Policy Data Privacy Environment, Health and Safety PolicyAnnual Corporate Governance Report (ACGR) Board Committees
- Articles of Incorporation
- Compliance Survey
Corporate Governance Principles
Rights of Stakeholders : Stockholders' Rights and Protection of Minority Stockholders' Interests
The Board shall respect the rights of the stockholders as provided for in the Corporation Code, namely:
Shareholders shall have the right to elect, remove and replace directors and vote on certain corporate acts in accordance with the Corporation Code.
Cumulative voting shall be used in the election of directors.
A director shall not be removed without cause if it will deny minority shareholders representation in the Board.
All stockholders shall have pre-emptive rights in accordance with law, unless the same is denied in the Articles of Incorporation or an amendment thereto. They shall have the right to subscribe to the capital stock of the Company. The Articles of Incorporation shall lay down the specific rights and powers of stockholders with respect to the particular shares they hold, all of which shall be protected by law so long as they shall not be in conflict with the Corporation Code.
Power of Inspection
All stockholders shall be allowed to inspect corporate books and records including minutes of the Board meetings and stock registries in accordance with the Corporation Code and shall be furnished with annual reports, including financial statements, without cost or restrictions.
Right to Information
The stockholders shall be provided, upon request, with periodic reports which disclose personal and professional information about the directors and officers and certain other matters such as their holdings of the Company’s shares, dealings with the Company, relationships among directors and key officers and the aggregate compensation of directors and officers.
The minority stockholders shall be granted the right to propose the holding of a meeting, and the right to propose items in the agenda provided the items are for legitimate business purposes and, in accordance with law, jurisprudence and best practice.
The minority stockholders shall have access to any and all information relating to matters for which management is accountable for and to those relating to matters which should have been included in the agenda of the annual meeting and, if not included, then the minority stockholders shall be allowed to propose such matters in the agenda of the stockholders’ meeting being within the definition of “legitimate purposes” and in accordance with law, jurisprudence and best practice.
Right to Dividends
Stockholders shall have the right to receive dividends subject to the discretion of the Board.
The Company shall be compelled to declare dividends when its retained earnings shall be in excess of 100% of its paid-in capital stock, except: a) when justified by definite corporate expansion projects or programs approved by the Board; or b) when the Company is prohibited under any loan agreement with any financial institution or creditor, whether local or foreign, from declaring dividends without its consent, and such consent has not been secured; or c) when it can be clearly shown that such retention is necessary under special circumstances obtaining in the Company, such as when there is a need for special reserve for probable contingencies.
The stockholders shall have appraisal right or the right to dissent and demand payment of the fair value of their shares in the manner provided for under Section 82 of the Corporation Code, under any of the following circumstances:
In case any amendment to the Articles of Incorporation has the effect of changing or restricting the rights of any stockholder or class of shares, or of authorizing preferences in any respect superior to those of outstanding shares of any class, or of extending or shortening the term of corporate existence;
In case of sale, lease, exchange, transfer, mortgage, pledge or other disposition of all or substantially all of the corporate property and assets provided in the Corporation Code; and
In case of merger or consolidation.
The Board shall continue to be transparent and fair in the conduct of the annual and special stockholders’ meetings of the Company. The stockholders shall be encouraged to personally attend such meetings. If they cannot attend, they shall be apprised ahead of time of their right to appoint a proxy. Subject to the requirements of the By-Laws, the exercise of that right shall not be unduly restricted and any doubt about the validity of a proxy shall be resolved in the stockholder’s favor.
It is the duty of the Board to promote the rights of the stockholders, remove impediments to the exercise of those rights and provide an adequate avenue for them to seek timely redress for breach of their rights.
The Board shall take the appropriate steps to remove excessive or unnecessary costs and other administrative impediments to the stockholders’ meaningful participation in meetings, whether in person or by proxy. Accurate and timely information shall be made available to the stockholders to enable them to make a sound judgment on all matters brought to their attention for consideration or approval.
Although all stockholders shall be treated equally or without discrimination, the Board shall give minority stockholders the right to propose the holding of meetings and the items for discussion in the agenda that relate directly to the business of the Company.